Fix me: To be continued

Redirection makes it possible to control where the output of a command goes to, and where the input of a command comes from. It's a mighty tool that, together with pipelines, makes the shell powerful. The redirection operators are checked whenever a simple command is about to be executed.

Under normal circumstances, there are 3 files open, accessible by the file descriptors 0, 1 and 2, all connected to your terminal:

stdin0standard input stream (e.g. keyboard)
stdout1standard output stream (e.g. monitor)
stderr2standard error output stream (usually also on monitor)

The terms "monitor" and "keyboard" refer to the same device, the terminal here. Check your preferred UNIX®-FAQ for details, I'm too lazy to explain what a terminal is ;-)

Both, stdout and stderr are output file descriptors. Their difference is the convention that a program outputs payload on stdout and diagnostic- and error-messages on stderr. If you write a script that outputs error messages, please make sure you follow this convention!

Whenever you name such a filedescriptor, i.e. you want to redirect this descriptor, you just use the number:

# this executes the cat-command and redirects its error messages (stderr) to the bit bucket
cat some_file.txt 2>/dev/null
Whenever you reference a descriptor, to point to its current target file, then you use a "&" followed by a the descriptor number:
# this executes the echo-command and redirects its normal output (stdout) to the standard error target
echo "There was an error" 1>&2

The redirection operation can be anywhere in a simple command, so these examples are equivalent:

cat foo.txt bar.txt >new.txt
cat >new.txt foo.txt bar.txt
>new.txt cat foo.txt bar.txt
Every redirection operator takes one or two words as operands. If you have to use operands (e.g. filenames to redirect to) that contain spaces you must quote them!

Valid redirection targets and sources

This syntax is recognized whenever a TARGET or a SOURCE specification (like below in the details descriptions) is used.

FILENAMEreferences a normal, ordinary filename from the filesystem (which can of course be a FIFO, too. Simply everything you can reference in the filesystem)
&Nreferences the current target/source of the filedescriptor N ("duplicates" the filedescriptor)
&-closes the redirected filedescriptor, useful instead of > /dev/null constructs (> &-)
/dev/fd/Nduplicates the filedescriptor N, if N is a valid integer
/dev/stdinduplicates filedescriptor 0 (stdin)
/dev/stdoutduplicates filedescriptor 1 (stdout)
/dev/stderrduplicates filedescriptor 2 (stderr)
/dev/tcp/HOST/PORTassuming HOST is a valid hostname or IP address, and PORT is a valid port number or service name: redirect from/to the corresponding TCP socket
/dev/udp/HOST/PORTassuming HOST is a valid hostname or IP address, and PORT is a valid port number or service name: redirect from/to the corresponding UDP socket

If a target/source specification fails to open, the whole redirection operation fails. Avoid referencing file descriptors above 9, since you may collide with file descriptors Bash uses internally.

Redirecting output


This redirects the file descriptor number N to the target TARGET. If N is omitted, stdout is assumed (FD 1). The TARGET is truncated before writing starts.

If the option noclobber is set with the set builtin, with cause the redirection to fail, when TARGET names a regular file that already exists. You can manually override that behaviour by forcing overwrite with the redirection operator >| instead of >.

Appending redirected output


This redirects the file descriptor number N to the target TARGET. If N is omitted, stdout is assumed (FD 1). The TARGET is not truncated before writing starts.

Redirecting output and error output



This special syntax redirects both, stdout and stderr to the specified target. It's equivalent to

> TARGET 2>&1

Since Bash4, there's &>>TARGET, which is equivalent to >> TARGET 2>&1.

This syntax is deprecated and should not be used. See the page about obsolete and deprecated syntax.

Appending redirected output and error output

To append the cumulative redirection of stdout and stderr to a file you simply do

>> FILE 2>&1

&>> FILE

Transporting stdout and stderr through a pipe



Redirecting input


The input descriptor N uses SOURCE as its data source. If N is omitted, filedescriptor 0 (stdin) is assumed.

Here documents



A here-document is an input redirection using source data specified directly at the command line (or in the script), no "external" source. The redirection-operator << is used together with a tag TAG that's used to mark the end of input later:

# display help

cat <<EOF
No help available yet for $PROGRAM.

As you see, substitutions are possible. To be precise, the following substitutions and expansions are performed in the here-document data:

You can avoid that by quoting the tag:

cat <<"EOF"
This won't be expanded: $PATH

Last but not least, if the redirection operator << is followed by a - (dash), all leading TAB from the document data will be ignored. This might be useful to have optical nice code also when using here-documents.

The tag you use must be the only word in the line, to be recognized as end-of-here-document marker.

It seems that here-documents (tested on versions 1.14.7, 2.05b and 3.1.17) are correctly terminated when there is an EOF before the end-of-here-document tag. The reason is unknown, but it seems to be done on purpose. Bash 4 introduced a warning message when end-of-file is seen before the tag is reached.

Here strings

<<< WORD

The here-strings are a variation of the here-documents. The word WORD is taken for the input redirection:

cat <<< "Hello world... $NAME is here..."

Just beware to quote the WORD if it contains spaces. Otherwise the rest will be given as normal parameters.

The here-string will append a newline (\n) to the data.

Multiple redirections

More redirection operations can occur in a line of course. The order is important! They're evaluated from left to right. If you want to redirect both, stderr and stdout to the same file (like /dev/null, to hide it), this is the wrong way:

# { echo OUTPUT; echo ERRORS >&2; } is to simulate something that outputs to STDOUT and STDERR
# you can test with it
{ echo OUTPUT; echo ERRORS >&2; } 2>&1 1>/dev/null
Why? Relatively easy:

  • initially, stdout points to your terminal (you read it)
  • same applies to stderr, it's connected to your terminal
  • 2>&1 redirects stderr away from the terminal to the target for stdout: the terminal (again…)
  • 1>/dev/null redirects stdout away from your terminal to the file /dev/null

What remains? stdout goes to /dev/null, stderr still (or better: "again") goes to the terminal. You have to swap the order to make it do what you want:

{ echo OUTPUT; echo ERRORS >&2; } 1>/dev/null 2>&1


How to make a program quiet (assuming all output goes to STDOUT and STDERR?

command >/dev/null 2>&1

See also


gdh, 2011/02/14 05:44

the result of command

cat <<< *
is *, but the result of command
cat** ****<**<< any-char  *
is the content of the files of the current directory. why?

Jan Schampera, 2011/02/14 06:31

These are 2 cases.

First, a redirection into cat using a "here string". The word after the <<< is expanded (variables, command substitutions, ...), but not pathname-expanded (*.txt, foo??.exe, ...), so:

# this gives the contents of PATH variable
cat <<< "$PATH"

# this gives a "*", because no pathname expansion happens
cat <<< *
If it WOULD work (again: it does NOT work), the pathname expansion would expand to multiple words anyways and probably give unexpected results:
cat <<< *

# RESULT (only the <<< 1.txt is a redirection!)
# this would give "1.txt" as here-string, and 2.txt, 3.txt as arguments to cat, also see below
cat <<< 1.txt 2.txt 3.txt

The second case is a mixture of redirection and commandline arguments. I'm not really sure what your original commandline was, this one doesn't even parse because it's waiting for more input. I'll simplify it and hope I interpreted it right:

cat <<EOF *
These are 2 things:

  • a redirection (here-document EOF)
  • a pathname expansion which MAY generate commandline arguments to cat

These things are independent. The "here document" will do what it's supposed to do, and the * will, too. The position on the commandline does not really matter, a redirection (here document) is a redirection:

# cat the two files plus "hello world" from standard input by here document redirection
cat f1.txt f2.txt <<EOF
hello world

# equivalent to
cat f1.txt <<EOF f2.txt
hello world

# equivalent to
cat <<EOF f1.txt f2.txt
hello world

I hope that makes it a bit clear.

And yes, during my research I found some weirdness in the Bash manual page about it, I will ask on the mailing list.

Reuti, 2011/09/21 08:05

I highly suggest to remove the paragraph with: alternative (by closing both filedescriptors): Command >&+2>&+ This is not working as one might expect: the error about not being able to write to &1 will also have no chance to being output and the whole consruct returns an error as return code:$ ls >&+Ls: write error: Bad file descriptor $ echo $? 2 $ ls >/dev/null $ echo $? 0 $

Jan Schampera, 2011/10/19 05:50

I completely removed that part. It just confuses people, you are right.


Josef, 2012/03/23 01:26

How can I identify, which stream is connected to terminal and which is connected to somewhere else?

E.g. >output.txt …stdout is not connected to terminal now, how can the scrip get know abot it?? 2>output.txt …stderr is not connected to terminal now, how can the scrip get know abot it??


Jan Schampera, 2012/03/23 16:56

Using the test command on the file descriptors in question.

[ -t 0 ] # STDIN
[ -t 1 ] # STDOUT

John, 2015/10/28 21:59

Probably worth highlighting the link with Process Substitution in a more prominent way than the "See Also: process substitution syntax" link, since it's a close relative and possibly much more powerful. I was looking for it around here and didn't find it. See also

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